Einstein’s pioneering work remained a theory until an astronomer named Sir Arthur Eddington used an eclipse to prove light could be bent by gravitational forces. He then joined the University of Chicago’s physics department, and even penned some successful textbooks.

The researchers protected their delicate interferometer setup from vibrations by placing it atop a solid sandstone slab, floating almost friction-free in a trough of mercury and further isolated in a campus building’s basement. When the path of a light beam travels in the same direction as the wind, the light should move a bit faster compared with sailing against the wind.

Color was tied up, somehow, with light itself. ­She found that pitchblende produced more radioactivity than uranium, leading her to predict that an unknown element must be present in the naturally occurring mineral. Phipps subsequently contracted cowpox and recovered. Galileo Galilei and the Leaning Tower of Pisa Experiment, Imagine you drop a bowling ball from one hand and a feather from the other. In order for Einstein’s theory to be correct, Eddington had to prove that the light had been bent by a source of intense gravity, such as the Sun. At what is now called Nokia Bell Labs in New Jersey, the physicists ricocheted electron particles off a nickel crystal. Although he had plenty of misses in his career — forays into occultism, dabbling in biblical numerology — Newton’s hits ensured his lasting fame. However, some were deflected o the gold foil at different angles, which meant that those particular particles had hit something with the same charge. In other words, the antibodies made to fight cowpox viruses will attack and kill smallpox viruses as if they were the same. What is Meteorology? This story originally appeared in print as "10 Experiments That Changed Everything", By God's Bones: Bad Words in the Middle Ages Were Nothing Like Today’s, This Winter’s Double Whammy of Pandemic Blues and Seasonal Depression. Instead, radioactivity — a term she coined — was an inherent property of individual atoms, emanating from their internal structure. Until now. “The genius in Mendel’s experiments was his way of formulating simple hypotheses that explain a few things very well, instead of tackling all the complexities of heredity at once,” says Gliboff.

Every day, we conduct science experiments, posing an “if” with a “then” and seeing what shakes out. In a few cases, we've paired two closely related experiments together in a single spot, not to hedge our bets, but to prove that science is a collaborative endeavor. Few women are represented in the annals of legendary scientific experiments, reflecting their historical exclusion from the discipline. “The fuchsias probably gave him the idea for the famous experiments,” says Sander Gliboff, who researches the history of biology at Indiana University Bloomington.

“Double-slit experiments have become so compelling [because] they are relatively easy to conduct,” says David Kaiser, a professor of physics and of the history of science at MIT. If you are a Zinio, Nook, Kindle, Apple, or Google Play subscriber, you can enter your website access code to gain subscriber access. But we still didn't know how fast it traveled. Experimental result: The discovery of blood circulation.

Franklin used a technique called. “Millikan’s result proved beyond reasonable doubt that the electron existed and was quantized with a definite charge. He investigated and found that the mould had contaminated the dish, inhibiting the growth of the bacteria.