While the city was defended by Bishop Ulrich of Augsburg, Otto assembled his army and marched south to face the Hungarians. Otto exiled Henry from East Francia, and he fled to the court of King Louis. Otto's authoritarian style was in stark contrast to that of his father. In response, Otto allied with Louis's chief antagonist, Hugh the Great, Count of Paris, and husband of Otto's sister Hedwige. Otto's concerns in Burgundy led to a change in his domestic status. Otto was born on 23 November 912, the oldest son of the Duke of Saxony, Henry the Fowler and his second wife Matilda, the daughter of Dietrich of Ringelheim, a Saxon count in Westphalia. Upon assuming the throne, Tugumir murdered his chief rival and proclaimed his loyalty to Otto, incorporating his territory into the German kingdom. An earlier attempt to revive the Western Empire had been led by an eastern emperor, Justinian, in the sixth century. Mr. Otto was born on 19 April 1952 in Alaska, USA. Liudolf and Otto called a truce until an Imperial Diet could be assembled to ratify the peace. Warmbier was released by North Korea just days ago. Following the death of Otto's uncle Berthold, Duke of Bavaria, in 947, Otto satisfied his brother Henry's ambition through his marriage to Judith, Duchess of Bavaria, daughter of Arnulf, Duke of Bavaria, and appointed him as the new Duke of Bavaria in 948. Conquer these questions—and expand your mental empire—in this quiz of emperors, conquerors, and men of war. Otto I was the son of King Henry I (the Fowler) of Germany. [25], Infuriated with Otto's actions, Eberhard joined Otto's half-brother Thankmar, Count Wichmann, and Archbishop Frederick of Mainz and rebelled against the king in 938. The church, too, was going through one of its most difficult periods in history. Refusing to recognize Otto's supremacy, Eberhard rebelled against the king. The idea that Otto would ask them to revoke the succession rights of Liudolf prompted many nobles into open rebellion. This confirmed and extended the temporal power of the papacy, but it is a matter of controversy whether the proviso enabling the emperor to ratify papal elections was included in the original version of the treaty or added in December 963, when Otto deposed John XII for treating with Berengar and set up Leo VIII as pope. Under Otto's command were Burchard III, Duke of Swabia and Bohemian troops of Duke Boleslaus I. On May 21, 996, Gregory crowned Otto III as Holy Roman emperor. • Althoff, Gerd (2013).

He is the sixth Children of his parents among seven children.

The Story Of An Octopus Named Otto Host Andrea Seabrook tells the story of how a smart octopus named Otto managed to keep the officials at Germany's Sea Star Aquarium in … Berengar II agreed and the pair traveled north to meet with Otto to seal the agreement.

The Holy Roman Empire ended with Napoleon's victory at the Battle of Austerlitz, also known as the Battle of the Three Emperors, when the empires of Russia and Austria were defeated. Was Greta Van Susteren a defense attorney in the OJ Simpson case? His army was near destruction until Otto's troops crossed the Alps. In the meantime, Christianity had been making some notable headway in Denmark. As the newly appointed Archbishop of Cologne, Bruno was eager to end the civil war in Lorraine, which was in his ecclesiastical territory. [12] With Henry's dominion over the entire kingdom secured by 929, the king probably began to prepare his succession over the kingdom.

When Otto arrived at Pavia on 23 September 951, the city willingly opened its gate to the German king. The next year, following the death of Otto's father, King Henry the Fowler, Boleslaus stopped paying tribute to the German Kingdom (East Francia) in violation of the peace treaty Henry had established with Boleslaus' brother and predecessor, Wenceslaus I. Boleslaus attacked an ally of the Saxons in northwest Bohemia in 936 and defeated two of Otto's armies from Thuringia and Merseburg. Bruno the Great, Otto's youngest brother and royal chancellor since 940, accompanied his older brothers and oversaw the arrangements for the negotiations. And I heard another voice from heaven, saying, Come out of her, my people, that you be not partakers of her sins, and that you receive not of her plagues. Hugh abdicated in favor of his son and retired to Provence; Berengar II made terms with Lothair and established himself as the decisive power behind the throne.

This arrangement finally achieved peace between the brothers, as Henry thereafter abandoned his claims to the throne. Tugumir agreed and returned to the Slavs.

[47], Upon the death of Emperor Charles the Fat in 888, the empire of Charlemagne was divided into several territories: East Francia, West Francia, the kingdoms of Lower and Upper Burgundy, and the Kingdom of Italy, with each of the realms being ruled by its own king. 2013-12-11 18:45:02 2013-12-11 18:45:02. Berengar II's forces also attacked the Papal States and the city of Rome under Pope John XII.

Boleslaus decided to sign a peace treaty, promising to resume payment of tribute. His decision frustrated Thankmar, Otto's half-brother and Siegfried's cousin, who felt that he held a greater right to the appointment. [15] But departing from customary Carolingian inheritance, the king designated Otto as the sole heir apparent without a prior formal election by the various dukes. [37], Boleslaus I, Duke of Bohemia, assumed the Bohemian throne in 935.

The decade between 941 and 951 was marked by Otto's exercise of undisputed domestic power. His support of learning resulted in the so-called Ottonian Renaissance, which helped to keep learning alive for the future. Several other influential Italian leaders arrived at Otto's court with similar appeals, including the Archbishop of Milan, the bishops of Como and Novara, and Margrave Otbert of Milan. The city was also the seat of Archbishop Frederick of Mainz, who acted as mediator between Otto and the rebels. Hermann's appointment angered his brother, Count Wichmann the Elder. Liudolf may have tried to help Adelaide, a distant relative of Liudolf's wife Ida, or he intended to strengthen his position within the royal family. As Otto received word of the attack, he ordered Conrad to relieve his rear units with a counter-attack. [2] With whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication.

Being besieged at San Leo, Berengar II surrendered in 963.

In his absence, Leo VIII was deposed and John XII was restored to the chair of St. Peter. Loyalty to Otto, not lineage, was the pathway towards advancement under his rule. Thenceforward he remained faithful to his brother and, in 947, was given the dukedom of Bavaria. Once these tasks were accomplished, Otto gave the duchy of Lorraine, whose duke had perished at Lechfeld, to his clerical brother Archbishop Bruno of Cologne. Europe and the Church, Part 8: Otto the Great,... With whom the kings of the earth have committed fornication, and the inhabitants of the earth have been made drunk with the wine of her fornication.

Charlemagne's grandsons finally settled their differences by the 843 Treaty of Verdun , dividing his empire, foreshadowing Europe 's current political divisions. [90], Otto's army descended into northern Italy in August 961 through the Brenner Pass at Trento. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. He was crowned king by the archbishops of Mainz and Cologne.

This led immediately to war, especially with Eberhard of Franconia and his namesake, Eberhard of Bavaria, who were joined by discontented Saxon nobles under the leadership of Otto’s half-brother Thankmar. Kohlhammer Verlag. Otto's younger brother Henry also claimed the throne, contrary to his father's wishes. [66], In winter 952, Adelaide gave birth to a son, whom she named Henry after her brother-in-law and the child's grandfather, Henry the Fowler. Was Genghis Khan’s empire very small? Emperors, Conquerors, and Men of War: Fact or Fiction? With the surrender of Liudolf, the rebellion had been put down throughout Germany except in Bavaria. Before he could defeat them, he was forced to abandon the siege and moved against Louis, who had seized Verdun. Confusing the defenders with a rain of arrows, they plundered the baggage train and made many captives. He subdued Rome and even advanced into the Byzantine south of Italy. The other German dukedoms were likewise bestowed on relatives of Otto. The word Holy was not used for another two centuries, but Otto the Great has been recognised by historians as in effect the first of the Holy Roman Emperors and the most powerful European ruler of his time. The Saxon line continued after the death of Otto I in 973. He recruited a captive Slav named Tugumir, a Hevelli chieftain, to his cause. One of Charlemagne's great-grandsons, Berengar I, was crowned emperor by the pope in 915, continuing the close relationship between church and state. In the aftermath of the Battle of Lechfeld, Otto rushed to the north and pressed far into their territory. [36], Otto continued the peaceful relationship between Germany and the Kingdom of Burgundy initiated by his father. At the urging of his sister Gerberga, Otto invaded France on behalf of Louis IV, but his armies were not strong enough to take the key cities of Laon, Reims, and Paris. With this change in opinion and the death of his wife Liutgarde, Otto's only daughter, Conrad began peace negotiations with Otto, which were eventually joined by Liudolf and Archbishop Frederick. Once more, Western Europe had an emperor, Otto I. Otto, therefore, marched for a third time to Italy, where he stayed from 966 to 972. Additionally, his first two sons from his marriage to Adelaide of Italy, Henry and Bruno, had both died in early childhood by 957.