Although, this is a very simplified explanation of the steps involved, it should give a good indication of the process.

The invert level (underside) of the foundation is determined by either the minimum depth below ground level unaffected by temperature, moisture content variation or erosion – this can be as low as 450 mm in granular soils but, depending on the site and ground conditions, can exceed 1 m – or by the depth of basement, boiler house, service ducts or similar. Sorry, your blog cannot share posts by email. After finding both safety factors of overturning sliding and knowing the coefficient of friction of soil and concrete, these values need to be inserted in design software to get the final design of footing foundation.

Footings support the dead (and other loads) to ensure the structure is static.


A very clear view of step by step procedure. Isolated pad footings are provided under columns and are joined/tied together by connecting beams.

This determines the preliminary design of the types or combination of types of foundation. However, because of its tendency to retain moisture it is cold and drains poorly. Speed and economy can conflict in foundation construction – an initial low-cost solution may increase the construction period.

This causes the silty soil to expand, pushing against a foundation and weakening it, making it not ideal for support. the loads from the superstructure are high, raft foundation is not economically feasible, proper bearing stratum is not available at shallow depths. In this tutorial, we will take a brief look at the process of designing a footing foundation. But with the increase in the number of floors in the structure, the load to be carried by the foundation system increases and consequently the area of the foundation needs to be increased.

Footing Foundation design process depends upon various structural processes. The soil type also gives the depth of the water table. Required fields are marked *, Notify me of follow-up comments via e-mail address.


Chapter 3 – Design Loads for Residential Buildings Typical Load Combinations Used for the Design of TABLE 3.1 Components and Systems1 Component or System Foundation wall (gravity and soil lateral loads) Headers, girders, joists, interior load-bearing walls and columns, footings (gravity loads) Exterior load-bearing walls and i’m a lab technician student and doing soil investigation. Various software exists to perform the structural analysis of the structure. It is common to look at the governing result and determine why the structure is failing, then adjust some input (reinforcement, footing dimension) to improve the design.

A fast-track programme for superstructure construction can be negated by slow foundation construction. Geotechnical-Material Engineer. Useful article for the civil and structural Design Engineers as well for the Architects, contractors and even for the common people and customers who are construction buildings to accept the designs issued by the Structural Engineers with whole heart.

The loads due to anticipated partition walls, which are not indicated on the plans, shall be treated as live loads and determined in accordance with Sec

Mountain soils and forest soils are most likely to have boulders at various depths, so pile foundations are not suitable.

After the proper calculation of loads, the type of foundation system suitable for the building (superstructure) is decided. The weight of the foundation and footings and all other permanent loads acting on the structure. In case of loose sand extending to a great depth, raft foundation maybe appropriate as spread footings may settle excessively.


From here, a competent engineer will try and reduce the amount of material used in the form of reducing the concrete and/or steel, while still maintaining the minimum requirements as set out by the design code.

These loads can be computed by finding the weights of cubical contents of the different materials used for constructing the structure. Hence it is necessary to prevent the direct contact of black cotton soil with masonry work below ground level. On the building plan, the position of columns and loadbearing walls should be marked, and any other induced loadings and bending moments. Some of the common design checks performed in the design of a concrete footing: Overturning check is completed after finding overturning safety factor which is found by dividing the sum of resisting moments by the sum of overturning moment.

This type of soil has poor clay content and also lacks in moisture content.

Time is often of the essence for a client needing early return on capital investment. Foundation is the part of the structure which transmits the loads acting on the structure and the self-weight of the structure, safely to the ground/subsoil.