In papyri and tombs dated by the 12th dynasty of the Middle Kingdom onward, Osiris is sometimes portrayed as the god of grain, specifically barley—the sprouting of the crop implies the resurrection of the deceased in the Underworld. She used a spell she had learned from her father and brought him back to life so he could impregnate her.

Serapis was often treated as the consort of Isis and became the patron deity of the Ptolemies' capital, Alexandria. However, later on, Osiris is both human and god. It was a story of regeneration and rebirth they saw play out each year with the cycle of the flooding of the Nile. [13], Through the hope of new life after death, Osiris began to be associated with the cycles observed in nature, in particular vegetation and the annual flooding of the Nile, through his links with the heliacal rising of Orion and Sirius at the start of the new year. [23], Much of the extant information about the rites of Osiris can be found on the Ikhernofret Stela at Abydos erected in the Twelfth Dynasty by Ikhernofret, possibly a priest of Osiris or other official (the titles of Ikhernofret are described in his stela from Abydos) during the reign of Senwosret III (Pharaoh Sesostris, about 1875 BC). As such, he came to be identified as the Creator god who is king of the underworld and the afterlife and who controls life, death, rebirth, and resurrection. If it was lighter than the feather they had lived a good, truthful life and would spend eternity in the kingdom of Osiris. Symbols: [1] Other syncretic Greco-Egyptian deities arose out of these conflations, such as Serapis and Hermanubis. After embalming and burying Osiris, Isis conceived and gave birth to their son, Horus. At the height of the ancient Nile civilization, Osiris was regarded as the primary deity of a henotheism.

[34], The person who is taken by the devourer is subject first to terrifying punishment and then annihilated. Letter by Professor J. Gwyn Griffiths", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Osiris&oldid=987110671, Articles with dead external links from April 2020, Articles with permanently dead external links, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles having same image on Wikidata and Wikipedia, Articles containing Ancient Greek (to 1453)-language text, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Mark J. Smith (2017) makes no definitive proposals but asserts that the second element must be a form of, This page was last edited on 5 November 2020, at 00:03. 21). Osiris: The Egyptian God of Life and Death - Mythology Source The ancient story says that Osiris is attacked by Seth in a remote location, trampled and cast down in the land of Gahesty, and he falls on the side of the riverbank near Abydos. As early as the 5th century BC, the two deities had been identified with each other, seen most notably in the historian Herodotus' Histories. [6], Osiris can be considered the brother of Isis, Set, Nephthys, and Horus the Elder, and father of Horus the Younger. Egyptian God Possible Greek/Roman Equivalent(s) Other Anubis: Since Anubis is the god of the dead, his Greek equivalent would be Hades. Osiris's wife, Isis, searched for his remains until she finally found him embedded in a tree trunk, which was holding up the roof of a palace. The annual flooding of the Nile River is still thought to be representative of this event. The crook is thought to represent Osiris as a shepherd god. [16][17], The tale of Osiris becoming fish-like is cognate with the story the Greek shepherd god Pan becoming fish like from the waist down in the same river Nile after being attacked by Typhon (see Capricornus). These depictions of punishment may have influenced medieval perceptions of the inferno in hell via early Christian and Coptic texts.

The origin of Osiris can be traced back to the Osiris Myth of the Old Kingdom (c. 2686 BCE – 2181 BCE) of Ancient Egypt.

On a stele at Abydos erected in the 12th Dynasty by I-Kher-Nefert, a priest of Osiris during the reign of Usertsen III (Pharaoh Sesostris, about 1875 BC) we find the principle scenes of the mystery-drama depicted (I-Kher-Nefert played Horus). He is considered one of the pharaohs of the "predynastic" period of Egyptian religion when the Ennead created the world. This name may have been a Hellenization of "Osiris-Apis". In later New Kingdom papyri he is illustrated lying on the desert sand, and his flesh changes color with the season: black evokes the Nile silt, green the living vegetation before the summer ripening. all men, not just dead pharaohs, were believed to be associated with Osiris at death. Yet his accounts were still obscure, for he also wrote, "I pass over the cutting of the wood" – opting not to describe it, since he considered it as a most sacred ritual (Ibid. Justinian would not tolerate this and sent Narses to destroy the sanctuaries, with the priests being arrested and the divine images taken to Constantinople.[40]. Their soul is in his body, their spirits are within him.” A parallel passage is found in the Pyramid Text of Pepi II, who is said to have “seizeth those who are a follower of Set…he breaketh their heads, he cutteth off their haunches, he teareth out their intestines, he diggeth out their hearts, he drinketh copiously of their blood!” (line 531, ff). Isis recovered all the parts of Osiris' body, except the phallus, and secretly buried them. It's not surprising if the story of Osiris sounds familiar. Many modern people mistakenly refer to the Eye of Horus as the Eye of Osiris. Dionysus-Osiris was particularly popular in Ptolemaic Egypt, as the Ptolemies claimed descent from Dionysus, and as pharaohs they had claim to the lineage of Osiris. Osiris was at times considered the eldest son of the god Geb[4] and the sky goddess Nut, as well as being brother and husband of Isis, with Horus being considered his posthumously begotten son. [12] The kings of Egypt were associated with Osiris in death – as Osiris rose from the dead so they would be in union with him, and inherit eternal life through a process of imitative magic. Musée du Louvre, Paris.Contrasting with the public "theatrical" ceremonies sourced from the I-Kher-Nefert stele, more esoteric ceremonies were performed inside the temples by priests witnessed only by chosen initiates. As Banebdjed, Osiris was given epithets such as Lord of the Sky and Life of the (sun god) Ra. Months later, she gave birth to Horus.

On the first day of the Festival of Ploughing, where the goddess Isis appears in her shrine where she is stripped naked, Paste made from the grain is placed in her bed and moistened with water, representing the fecund earth. //--> Although there were ethical and ceremonial considerations none of these could compare to the power of the divine eucharist, since it was literally believed to be the body (bread) and blood (ale) of the god. Osiris was the ancient Egyptian god of the dead, the underworld, and the afterlife. By the New Kingdom all people, not just pharaohs, were believed to be associated with Osiris at death if they incurred the costs of the assimilation rituals. The ancient Egyptians attributed much of this to Osiris and they held many ceremonies to give praise to his name, actions, and attributes. Set fooled Osiris into getting into a box, which Set then shut, sealed with lead, and threw into the Nile. document.write(a+b+c+d+e) 136–137, Paris, 1961, "Studies in Comparative Religion", General editor, E. C Messenger, Essay by A. Mallon S. J, vol 2/5, p. 23, Catholic Truth Society, 1934, Ancient Egyptian deities in popular culture § Osiris, The Historical Library of Diodorus Siculus, "Osiris Bed, Burton photograph p2024, The Griffith Institute", "Letter: Hell in the ancient world. ", E. A Wallis Budge, chapter 1, E. A Wallis Budge, org pub 1900, "Routledge Dictionary of Egyptian Gods and Goddesses", George Hart, p119, Routledge, 2005, J. Vandier, "Le Papyrus Jumilhac", pp.