If tempered at higher temperatures, between 650 °C (1,202 °F) and 700 °C (1,292 °F), or for longer amounts of time, the martensite may become fully ferritic and the cementite may become coarser or spheroidize. From aerospace and automotive to industrial and heavy equipment, we work with a variety of industries to provide cutting-edge steel treatment services. Grey cast iron consists mainly of the microstructure called pearlite, mixed with graphite and sometimes ferrite. As a leading heat treatment service provider, Specialty Steel Treating is committed to offering precision treatment services for a variety of needs. Enjoy high-performance steel that balances hardness and ductility today.

When heating above this temperature, the steel will usually not be held for any amount of time, and quickly cooled to avoid temper embrittlement. between hard, ductile material. Quensching and tempering can be divided into three basic steps: 1. austenitizing→ heating to above the GSK line into the austenite region 2. quenching → rapid cooling up below γ-α-transformation 3. tempering→ re-heating to moderate temperatures with slow cooling Depending on whether a high hardness (“hardening”) or strength/toughness (“strengthening”) has to b… The main purpose for alloying most elements with steel is to increase its hardenability and to decrease softening under temperature. I shall employ the word tempering in the same sense as softening."[6]. However, these microstructures usually require an hour or more to form, so are usually not a problem in the blacksmith-method of tempering. the necessity of complete precision and control throughout the process.

However, very thick items may not be able to harden all the way through during quenching.[11]. Steel in a tempering oven, held at 205 °C (401 °F) for a long time, will begin to turn brown, purple or blue, even though the temperature did not exceed that needed to produce a light-straw color.

Differential tempering is a method of providing different amounts of temper to different parts of the steel. Most The process, called "normalize and temper", is used frequently on steels such as 1045 carbon steel, or most other steels containing 0.35 to 0.55% carbon. When quenched, these solutes will usually produce an increase in hardness over plain carbon-steel of the same carbon content. One-step embrittlement usually occurs in carbon steel at temperatures between 230 °C (446 °F) and 290 °C (554 °F), and was historically referred to as "500 degree [Fahrenheit] embrittlement." This embrittlement occurs due to the precipitation of Widmanstatten needles or plates, made of cementite, in the interlath boundaries of the martensite. that meet your needs and your deadlines. Austenite has much higher stacking-fault energy than martensite or pearlite, lowering the wear resistance and increasing the chances of galling, although some or most of the retained austenite can be transformed into martensite by cold and cryogenic treatments prior to tempering.